References are explicit references in professional and general books, edited volumes, magazines, forums, debates, on websites and other media, to research products or outputs.
References can be regarded as traces of use and thus of impact in the non-specialist domain. They occur as footnotes or endnotes in professional and general publications, as explicit citations in reports and proceedings, on websites and in other general communication channels.
References can be presented in the narrative as evidence of use by societal groups. In some instances, it is possible to analyse and quantify these references systematically (see the example in the section on Hybrid publications), although this is often only the case in specific areas, for example newspapers or the reports of political bodies. That is not possible, or less so, in other areas, however, and references will then have to be presented as part of the narrative.
Reasoned indicator, as part of narrative.