The indicators in this cell are meant to show how the research outputs have been used by societal target groups. They demonstrate how academic research is used in a wide variety of ways by civil society institutions, businesses and government authorities, but also by workers in the field, teachers, media users and other societal groups.
The following indicators are used to catalogue the societal use of research products:
- Projects in cooperation with societal parties
- Contract research
- Use of products in education of products in education
- Use of research facilities of research facilities, databases, digital infrastructures, tools, software, apps and designs by societal parties
- Product reviews in public media
- Citations of articles, books, reports, websites of articles, books, reports, websites and other products in the professional and public domain
- Participation by researchers in active networks of professional and other users that have a demonstrable relationship with research
- Other descriptions of use by societal groups
This non-exhaustive summary shows that the many different manifestations and contexts makes the authorisation, standardisation and quantification of these indicators unfeasible. These indicators are qualitative in nature and must be provided with a rationale, although quantitative data can certainly be used for that purpose.